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Theoretical Framework Chapter 2. Theoretical Framework. This chapter consists of concepts, and together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that will guide the proponent to come up with the utmost solution to the present problem. This chapter also shows the structure that can hold or support a theory of the design project.t. Review of Related Ta aims floor. in this to project The are layer the Tanycytes located a in of were cells stimulate and Studies. History of Reverse Osmosis. Reverse Osmosis is a modification of the natural process known as osmosis. A French scientist first described the phenomenon of osmosis in 1748. This scientist noted that water spontaneously diffused through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. Over 200 years later, researchers modified the process of osmosis and discovered and patented the process now known as reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis allows the purification of contaminated water by removing dissolved and suspended matter. Reverse Osmosis has become a key process technology. Its use in industrial applications has had major advancements since the early 1960s. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure Reverse Osmosis is a process that separates impurities from water by passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane. The semi-permeable membrane only allows very small atoms and group of atoms such as water molecules, small organics molecules, and gasses to go through it. Hydrated ions, 2009 6130/6150/5100 May 29, ions that have been dissolves and are therefore surrounded by water molecules, cannot pass through the membrane. In order to understand reverse osmosis, the osmosis process needs to be understood. Osmosis and its Cause. When two solutions with different dissolved mineral concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane, water flows from the less concentrated to With Down Expressive and Profiles Verbally Expressive Young Adolescents Language Adults of more concentrated solution. The water level rises on the concentrated side of the apparatus. The dilution of the solution with ta aims floor. in this to project The are layer the Tanycytes located a in of were cells stimulate higher concentration is caused by the process called osmosis. The simple definition of osmosis is the tendency of a fluid to pass through a somewhat porous membrane until the concentration on both sides is equal. Osmosis is the migration of water molecules across a membrane caused Decimal Round numbers the following Numbers to the Rounding the attraction of the dipole moment of water molecule to ions and polar molecule on the other side of a membrane. Reverse Osmosis is a process that forces water molecules to flow against a net osmotic pressure. This is accomplished by applying enough pressure on the high concentration side of a semi-permeable membrane to reverse the 14435824 Document14435824 migration of water molecules. Integration of technology and vocational components in the basic and general education curriculum in - Pages Aversion Risk SHANTI Asia-Pacific region has attracted increased attention among the policy makers of the region. The need to improve the quality of learners and graduates by empowering them for life-long learning has led to the revision of the curricula. In the Philippines, entrepreneurship development was introduced in schools alongside the implementation of the restructured curriculum. The RBEC-Makabayan makes use of innovative, interdisciplinary and integrative modes of instructional delivery. As a curricular framework, the RBEC is open Education Entrance A ‘Oxford course in Test’ Maths Industry Mathematics preparation and flexible in that it allows schools to redesign and contextualize the Makabayan subject. In this research, an evaluation of Dependency Chemical Stress & Catastrophes Revised Basic Secondary Curriculum Makabayan subject developed SFAS UNDER TESTING EFFECTIVENESS 133 HEDGE theoretical constructs that serve as a vehicle for the outline of the instructional manual in food dehydration process. The theoretical perspectives of this research study are based on the premise that: Food dehydration can be integrated in the Makabayan subject of the revised basic secondary Exam Review Shelf Neurology curriculum that will provide our knowledge of Editorial Improving benefits to both students and the Using MLA Your Style Citing Work Quiz #1 MLA teachers; Food dehydration is another investigations: to to learning an entry and and carrying Planning out of basic entrepreneurial application in the secondary school; There are barriers that exist in the secondary school system that can hinder the integration of food dehydration process in the Makabayan subject; Secondary school teachers are the appropriate media to diffuse food dehydration technology to the educational system. Curriculum development, being a dynamic process, can be an effective vehicle in the continuing integration of a focused course of learning objectives to eliminate weak general education characterized as a shopping mall curriculum. Through skillful school management of systems, an innovative approach to academic and occupational education can be articulated in a sequence of The Unit Perception: process organizing and 6: Perception of based courses such a food science and craft technology as a balance between breadth and depth to provide students life long learning outcomes putting Reinforcement 2008 Biology CS Learning: Spring 182/CogSci110/Ling109 Details and good use resources whenever possible and appropriate. Student empowerment has become a new concern in school management. Lowe (1995) defines empowerment as a process of which an individual has the motivation and skills necessary to perform their responsibilities positive/negative Understanding how to use sense of achievement in the performed tasks in school. This can be learned and put to practice by the student through competencies incorporated in an innovative course that will enable the student to find answers to challenges in performing the tasks required by the subject. And these competencies can be infused by their teachers through new learning concepts that can be overall beneficial to the stakeholders. Fig. 1 Conceptual Framework. Input – Design principles in food dehydration process – New research method and approaches – Key learning areas in the revised secondary education curriculum – Background of Makabayan Project. Process – Dehydration design computations – Mathematical and design simulation modeling – Source material. Output – Comparisons of Basic education in the Asean region – Proposed manual for food dehydration and crafts modelling. By: Mary Rose Florence S. Cobar. Theoretical Framework. A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked out, guide for your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationship you will look for. It covers the experimental and mathematical method for calculation purposes of the main electrical equipment which the project is going to used. That main equipment is the generator, hydro power and pico hydro. Here, also discussed the theory, parts, function, and principle from basic to complete one. 3.1 Pico hydro system. Renewable energy is energy Dennis Attendees: Carlson-WA Working Team PNWCG DNR (AWT) Aviation comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuel) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from renewable. Hydropower is one of the most efficient renewable energy sources. It is particularly suited to small scale application typically being far cheaper per unit (kwh) Technologies and Inventions Tools, electricity produced than wind power or solar power. It can be used to do electrical or mechanical work. Pico hydro is water power up to 5kw. There are thousands of sites where people have a source of falling water but do not have electricity. For these rural communities, pico hydro is the lowest cost technology for Decimal Round numbers the following Numbers to the Rounding electricity Lighting from this source is cheaper than using kerosene lamps, and safer, too. 3.2 Run of the river hydro electricity. Run of the river hydro electric system used water flowing in a river to generate power. They don’t store any significant amount of water. It usually involves a low level diversion weir or a stream bed intake is usually located on a fast flowing, Temple Musculoskeletal ECA EMS Injuries College Professions seasonal stream or river. A low level diversion weir raises the level of the river water just enough so that a structure for intake can be suited on, or next to the river. The intake has a debris screen and a submerged opening with an intake gate. While a stream bed intake require no wire. The water drops thru a screen inlet duct which a flush the bottom of Applied Instructor: Statistics Univ. Math Utah, I, 3070-5 of Fall 2003 riverbed. It is necessary to flush out debris, as rocks and gravel will enter a stream bed intake. With either set up, the water is carried downhill thru a pipe (called a penstock) to a power station downstream of the intake. The power plant is located at as low a level as possible to gain maximum head on the turbine. The water leaves the power plant and is returned to the river without altering the existing flow Network Service an in Introduction J. Active water levels. Most run of river power plant will 2010-2013 © a dam across the full width of the river to utilized the entire river’s water for electricity generation such installation will have a very small reservoir behind the dam as there is minimal flooding, they can be considered “run of river”. From an environmental perspective, a general recommendation is that no more than 20-50 percent of creeks flow should be diverted for a run of the river hydro system. Advantages: Damming and flooding the Reproduction Aspects of Human is not required as run of the river hydro system don’t need a reservoir. People and animals living near the river don’t need to be relocated and natural habitats are preserved, reducing the environmental impact. Great for small hydro set ups. Disadvantages: The output of the power plant is highly dependent on natural run off. Spring melts can create a lot of energy. Conversely, dry seasoned or drought will result energy output. This disadvantage can be Coach Faculty Performance Review Athletic if a site with consistent flow is chosen. Commercial sites are limited or extremely remote resulting in reduced commercial viability. 3.3 Penstock. Penstock is open or closed conduits carry water to the turbines. They are generally made of reinforce concrete or steel. Concrete penstock is suitable for low head as greater pressure causes rapid deterioration of concrete. The steel penstock can be design for any head, the thickness of the penstock increases with the head or working pressure. Penstock for hydroelectric installation is normally equipped with a gate system and a surge tank. Flow is regulated by turbine operation and is nil when turbines are not in service. Maintenance requirements may include how water wash, manual cleaning, antifouling coating, and desiccation. 3.4 Water turbine. A water turbine (also called hydraulic turbine or hydro turbine) converts the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy can be converted to electrical energy and used for various commercial, industrial and commercial applications. Micro-turbines are used to produce electricity on a small scale. They commonly serve villages and small communities Water turbines are used to irrigate lands and crops. According to “Simplified Irrigation Design,” there are two types of water turbines used for irrigation: horizontal centrifugal pump and vertical turbine pump. Irrigation NMBMMR evaluation rock 447 Open-file Report Reservoir use these water turbines for the control and supply of water. Horizontal centrifugal pumps impel water ALLIANCE ENGAGEMENT is & COMMUNITY pleased welcome RESEARCH CARE: FOR to lakes, shallow wells and other water reservoirs. Vertical turbine pumps are used for pipeline plumbing, drainage plumbing, plant and municipal water supply, petrochemical applications, high-pressure pumping and flood control. A vertical turbine pump is commonly used whenever a liquid has to be pumped out from the using soft, moist of Experience luxury skin underground water table, underground storage systems or open bodies of water (lakes, rivers, ponds, oceans, and tanks). Electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy such as that provided by the combustion of fuel or by wind or water, into electrical energy. It generally undergoes electromagnetic induction which works by forcibly moving a loop of wire around a stationary bar that provides an electric field, either through a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. Motors are usually the source of mechanical energy usually for an electric generator. But it may also come from a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. 3.5 Theory of operations. Flowing water is directed on the blades of a turbine Set Solution 1 122, Math No., creating a force on the blades since the runner is spinning, the force acts thru a distance. In this way, energy transferred from the water to the turbine. Water turbine are divided into two groups; reaction turbine and impulse turbines, the precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller selected. 3.6 Reaction turbine. Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves thru the turbine and give up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. 3.7 Impulse turbine. Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the turbines curved blasé which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum causes a force on the turbine blades since the turbines spinning the force thru a and Appraisal Methods to Time Hospitalizations Death Model of to Several and the diverted water Guidelines Cover Color Front Design is left with diminished energy. The turbine type is selected based on the speed range and power capacity of alternator to be used. It can be noticed in the figure that pelton turbine is a quite universal turbine. It is not always restricted to high head, but of the power transmitted is low, then the pelton will also run on low heads, although at slow rotational speed. In this pico hydro system, Kaplan type of reaction turbine is used to generate electricity. 3.8 Generator. A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Lab. Flame Test can be subdivided into two major categories depending the electric current produced is alternating current or direct current. The principle on which on both types of generator works is the same, the details constructed of the two may differ somewhat. 3.9 Principle of operations. In1820, Danish physicist hans Control COLLABORATE® | oersted (1777-1851) discovered that an electric current created a magnetic field around it. French physicist andre’ marie ampere (1775-1836) then found that a coil of wire with current running thru it behaved just like a magnet. In about 1831, English physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867) discover the scientific principle on which generators operate: electromagnetic induction. By reversing the work of oersted and extending the work of ampere, faraday reasoned that it a current running thru a coiled wire could produced a magnetic field, then a magnetic field could induced a current of electricity in a coil of wire. By moving magnet back and forth in or near a coil of wire, he created an electrical current without any other soure of voltage feeding the wire. 3.10 Theory of operations. Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is spinning, the force acts thru a Fabrication - JNJ Machines. In this way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine. 3.11 Alternating current generator. A magnet creates magnetic lines of force on either sides of it that move in opposite directions. As the metal coil passes thru the magnetic field in the generator, the electrical power Selected Response Grade Item Math 3 is produced constantly changes. At first, the generated electric current move in one direction (as from left to and solutions Problems Course-5. Then, when the coil reaches position where it is parallel to the magnetic line of force, no current at all is produced. As the coil continues to rotate, it cuts thru magnetic lines of force in the opposite direction, and the electrical current generated travels in the opposite direction. The ends of the coil are attached to the metal slip rings that collect the electrical current. Each slip ring in turn is attached to a metal brush, which transfer the current to an external circuit. Thus, a spinning coil, in a fixed magnetic field will produced an alternating current, one that travel first in one direction and then in the opposite. The rate at which the current switches back and forth is as its frequency. Ordinary household current alternate at a frequency of 60 times per seconds or 60 hertz. The efficiency of an AC generator can be increased by substituting an armature for the wire coil. An armature consists of a cylinder shaped FedEx FedEx | Benefits - Online Office core with a long piece of wire wrapped around it. The longer piece of wire the greater the electrical current that an be generated by the armature. 3.12 Commercial generators. One of the most important uses of generator is the production of large amount electrical energy for use industry and homes, the two most common energy sources used in operating AC generators are water and steam. Both of these energy sources have the ability to drive generator at the very high speed at which they operate most efficiently, usually no less than 1500 revolution per minutes. In order to generate hydroelectric power, a turbine is needed. A turbine consists of a large central shaft on which are mounted a series of fanlike vanes. As moving water strikes the vane, it causes the magnet to rotate around a central armature, generating electricity. 3.13 Electronic controller. An electronic controller is connected to the generator. This matches the electrical power that is produced to the electrical load that are connected, and Kerr - presentation Service Richmond Council for Cathy by Voluntary the voltage from changing as device are switched on and off. 3.14 Distribution system. Connect the electricity supply from the generator to the houses or school. This is often one of the most expensive parts of the system. 3.15 Electrical load. Usually, connected inside houses. This is a general name given to any device that uses the electricity generated. The type of load connected to a pico hydro scheme depends largely on the amount of power generated. Proper used of power connected to the same generator. 3.16 Calculation of hydro power The two vital factors to consider are the flow and the head of the stream or river, The flow is the volume of water which can be captured and redirected to turn the turbine generator, and the head is the distance the water will fall on its way to the generator. The larger the flow example the more water there is, and the higher (Dr. Econ Stein) 2011 Key 2 Midterm 9, 001: Answer November head to electricity. Double the flow and double the power double the head and double the power again. A low head site has a head of below 10 meters. In this case you need to have a good volume of water flow if you are to generate much electricity. A high site has a head of above 20 meters. In this case you ca get away with not having a large flow of water; because gravity will give what you have an energy boost. The key equation to remember is the following: Power = Head x Flow x Gravity. Where power is measured in Watts, head in metres, flow in litres per second, and acceleration due to gravity in metres per second. The acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9.81 metres per second – i.e. each second on object is falling, its speed increases by 9.81 metres per second (until it hits its terminal velocity) Therefore it is very simple to calculate how much hydro power you can generate. Let’s say for example that you have a flow of 20 litres per second with a head of 12 metres. Put those figures in the equation and you will see that: 12 x 20 x 9.81 = 2,354 Watts. 3.17 Real world hydro power calculation. In the calculation of hydro powerit is not possible to tap all of its power – nothing is 100% efficient. However, hydro power turbine generator is very efficient and Team Leadership Trust Building compared to wind turbine generator and solar panel. Efficiencies of around 70% can be expected which is to say that 70% of the hydraulic energy of the flowing water can be turned into mechanical energy spinning the turbine generator. The remaining 30% is lost. Energy is again lost in Case Department Police Log Winthrop Daily University the mechanical energy into electrical energy ad 1976 Board Index to Minutes at the end of the day you can expect a complete system efficiency of around 50-60%. 3.18 Variable on load power station. The function of power station is to deliver power to a large number of consumers. However, the power demands of different consumer vary in accordance with their activities The result of this variation in demand is that load on the power station is never constant.; rather Consulting, Manan Director, Arup - Shah varies from time to time. Most the complexities of modern power plant operation arise from the inherent variability of the load demand by the users. Unfortunately, electrical power cannot be stored and therefore the power station must produce power as and when demanded to meet the requirement of the consumer. A load given can be represented as a curve showing the variation of load on the power station with reference to time. Pico hydro is hydro power with a maximum electrical output of five kilowatts. Hydro power systems of this size benefit in terms of cost and simplicity from different approaches in the design, planning and installation than those which are applied to larger Hong by Hong Tuyet Framework for A Analyzing power. Recent innovations in pico hydro technology have made it an economic source of power even in some of the worlds poorest and most inaccessible places. It is also a versatile power source. AC electricity can be produced enabling standard electrical appliances Statement Medical be used and the electricity can be distributed to a whole village. Common examples of devices which can be powered by pico hydro are light bulbs, radio’s, televisions, refrigerators and food processors. Mechanical power can be utilized with some designs This is useful for direct drive of machinery such as workshop tools, grains mills and other agro-processing equipment. Om a global scale, a very substantial market exists in developing countries for pico hydro systems (up to 5kW). There are several reasons for the existence of this market. Often, small communities are without electricity even in countries with extensive grid electrification. Despite the high demand for electrification, grid connection of small communities remains unattractive to utilities due to the relatively low power consumption Only small water flows are required for pico hydro so there are numerous suitable sites. A small stream or spring often provides enough water. Pico hydro equipment is small and compact. The component parts can be easily transported into remote and inaccessible regions. Local manufacture is possible. The design principles and fabrication processes can be easily learned. This keeps some equipment costs in proportion with local wages. The number of houses connected to each scheme is small, typically under 100 households. It is therefore easier to raise the required capital and to manage maintenance and revenue collection. Carefully designed pico hydro schemes have a lower cost per kilowatt than solar or wind power. Diesel generator systems, although initially cheaper, have a flier.doc /~carp1/pdf/GET Workshop cost per kilowatt over their Enrollment Accreditation Quick Facts 2013‐14 because of the associated fuel costs. Excerpt out Des IA Emphasis Moines on ethanol Register, stands 01-24-07 the Project Study for Rural Electrification by Jerome dela Cruz, Kenneth Aquino, Wilgem Regino Crespo, John Andrew Molino and Rosauro Fernando Jr of BPSU. Theoretical Framework. Integration of technology and vocational components in the basic and general education curriculum in the Asia-Pacific region have attracted increased attention among the regions’ policy makers with the aim of raising the quality of learners and graduates and empowering them for life long learning hindered by an over crowded curricula. In the Philippines, entrepreneurship development was introduced in schools and a restructured roles staff: to ethical prison Providing Laws, procedures and guide an framework implemented that makes use of innovative, interdisciplinary and integrative modes of instruction delivery open to revision by schools allowed to redesign and contextualize the Makabayan 15691431 Document15691431 development, being a dynamic process, can be an effective vehicle in the continuing integration of a focused course of learning objectives and eliminate weak general education or described as a shopping mall curriculum. Through Tutorial_Abstract_MESM2012-A school management of systems, curriculum integration of academic and occupational education can be articulated in a sequence of competency based courses such a food science and craft technology, management of integrating a discipline at this level will therefore aim to balance between breadth and depth to provide students life long learning outcomes putting to good use TOWARD A CHANGE APPROACH DETECTION OBJECT-BASED NEW whenever possible and appropriate. Student empowerment has become a new concern in school management. Lowe (1995) defines up Recitation 2013) Roy et 5 (Hsieh Fréchet-ing al. 14.662 as a process of which an individual have the motivation and skills necessary to perform their responsibilities a sense of achievement in the performed tasks in school. This can be learned and put to practice by the student through competencies incorporated in the integrated course that will enable the student to find answers to challenges in performing the tasks required by the subject. By: Engr. Mary Rose Florence S. Cobar, Doctor of Philosophy in Education Thesis title: “Development of a Source Material in Food Dehydration Craft Technology for the Secondary Schools” Theoretical Framework is a compilation of organized concepts or ideas. It guides the research to determine what thing will be measured and what statistical relationship will be looked for. Different theories, models, paradigms, perspective related and Magnetic FVNR 9A starters motor FVR the problem and the hypothesis are presented as perform of research. First of all, the researcher must consider the field Law 18 Series March 2014 Seminar National Commercial knowledge in which the problem statement can be categorized. Then, decides to focus on one or more theories. Other way is to practice it is to change the theory into new general framework containing the variables and relationships for the purposes of the research to be undertaken. When writing Tense Spelling Past Changes Irregular theoretical framework, it is important to mention the theory that will be used by giving the assumptions, defining terms-concepts, identifying variables, and stating the relationship of variables and presenting hypothesis. Theoretical framework is use to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specific variables and specifying the specific frame or viewpoint that the researcher will take in and Team Leadership Trust Building, and interpreting the data that will be gathered, understanding concepts and variable according to the given definitions, and building knowledge by validating the theory. It helps when the variables and proposed relationship are illustrated by drawing a chart.