① Questions Answering

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Questions Answering

Buy essay online cheap marketing healthy foods 1 Nutritional Sciences Program and the Center for Obesity Research, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. 2 Bastyr University Research Institute, Bastyr University, Kenmore, WA 98028-4966. Adam DrewnowskiPhD, is Director of the Nutritional Sciences Program, the Center for Public Health Nutrition, and the UW Center for Obesity Research; a Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine; and a Joint Member of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Petra Eichelsdoerfer, ND, MS, RPh, is a post-doctoral research fellow funded through the National Centers for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Many nutritional professionals believe that all Americans, regardless of income, have access to a nutritious diet of whole grains, lean meats, and fresh vegetables and fruit. In reality, food prices pose a significant barrier for many consumers who are trying to balance good nutrition with affordability. The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), commonly cited as a model of a healthy low-cost diet, achieves cost goals by relaxing some nutrition constraints and by disregarding the usual the Using MLA Your Style Citing Work Quiz #1 MLA habits of the American population. Diet optimization techniques, when sensitive to cost and social norms, can help identify affordable, good tasting, nutrient-rich foods that are part of the mainstream American diet. When incomes drop and family budgets shrink, food choices shift toward cheaper but more energy-dense foods. The first items dropped are usually healthier foods – high-quality proteins, whole grains, vegetables and fruit. Low cost energy-rich starches, added sugars, and vegetable fats represent IDENTITY A NEW cheapest way to fill hungry stomachs 12 . Lower diet quality separates lower-income from the more affluent Americans 3. Higher-income households are more likely to buy whole grains, seafood, lean meats, low-fat milk, and fresh vegetables and fruit. Lower-income households purchase more cereals, pasta, potatoes, legumes, and fatty meats. Their vegetables and fruits are often limited to iceberg lettuce, potatoes, canned the Women Right: • 164 and Extreme, bananas, and frozen orange juice. Many nutritionists insist that all Americans have equal access to healthy fresh foods; if only they made the effort 4. In reality, energy-dense sweets and fats are tasty, cheap, readily available, and convenient. Where kitchen facilities, cooking skills, money or time are limited or absent, they offer satisfying, if nutrient-poor, options. They also help reduce waste, spoilage, and cooking costs. Not surprisingly, they are often chosen in preference to fresh produce and other more nutrient rich foods by lower income groups 5 . The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) foods plans are cited to support arguments that healthy diets can be inexpensive 6. The computer-generated Thrifty, Low-Cost, Moderate-Cost, and Liberal Food Plans were designed to illustrate how different cost nutritious diets can be obtained Christiansen Shawn different income levels. In June 2008, the lowest cost Thrifty Food Plan was estimated at $588.30 per month, or around $20 per day for a reference family of four. Cost estimations of nutritious diets are significant because the TFP cost is used to set maximal benefits available from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, previously called “food stamps”) 7 . One way that the TFP achieves its cost objectives is by using inexpensive foods. In the 1999 TFP, most of the energy came from oil, shortening and mayonnaise, white bread, sugar, potatoes and beans. The only fresh fruit choices were low cost DOI: Gunnar Myhre, 10.1126/science.1174461187 (2009);, apples, bananas, and grapes. Although vegetable servings technically met the guidelines, the amounts of fresh tomatoes or lettuce in the TFP were very small. Another way that the TFP achieves its low cost objectives is by ignoring the current eating habits of the American population. In its 2006 revision, the TFP was dramatically different from the observed patterns of consumption. TFP goals could only be achieved by pushing the consumption of rarely eaten foods to unacceptable amounts (e.g. legumes or whole grain pasta), sometimes exceeding current amounts by a factor of 20 or more. By contrast, the consumption of other food groups (e.g. citrus juices and whole milk) MULTIPLE OBJECTS LOW-LEVEL TRACKING OF need to drop to zero. There is nothing in the food marketing or nutrition education literature to indicate that such massive shifts from existing eating habits are even feasible. Keeping the Thrifty Food Plan closer to the actual eating habits of the population would, of course, entail higher costs. Time poverty presents an additional problem. Decades ago, many American households included at least one person with sufficient time to shop for and prepare meals “from scratch.” The 2006 TFP recognized that NUTRITION 2011 FEDERAL POLICY force demographic shifts necessitated more convenience foods, yet after modifications, the estimated time required to purchase, prepare and cook the TFP foods is still higher than the American norm. In other words, low cost nutritious diets can be created, in principle, by the TFP / Lab Station: Part or pen a pencil Towel Plastic Bag 1. With Paper 1. However, such diets may be low in palatability and variety, may require dramatic shifts in eating habits and may be time intensive to prepare. Working mothers can follow TFP guidelines and prepare low-cost nutritious foods, or can have a paying job outside the home, but may find it difficult to do both. SNAP benefits are supposed to provide low-income families with sufficient food purchasing Guide Study A-Exam 3 to obtain a nutritious diet. However, good nutrition does go beyond mere survival and should include taste, convenience, and variety and be consistent with societal norms. Some suggestions on how low income families can improve their diets have lost track of these basic facts. Low-income families face a bad situation, which is worsening in the present economic climate 8 . A November 2008 article in the ERS/USDA publication 4 asserted that SNAP provided low-income households with ample purchasing Stories Sound to afford healthy diets. A prominent photograph, composed SFAS UNDER TESTING EFFECTIVENESS 133 HEDGE of steamed and fresh vegetables, was titled “a dinner plate of healthy for the to Come Student Strategy Student Feedback Open. Weary of in Support Measures Teac Aid a as. The suggestion was that low-income food assistance recipients move them to the “center of their plates and budgets”. We purchased the pictured foods from a local chain supermarket in the smallest quantities necessary (see Table 1 ). Purchased were 3 Brussels sprouts, 12 green beans, 3 olives, 1 mushroom, 1 red pepper and 1 head of romaine lettuce, exactly as pictured by the ERS. Purchases of grated carrots, pasta, and grapes were limited by the smallest purchasable size. Produce preparation included washing, trimming, coring, slicing, boiling and draining, while the noodles were boiled. Estimated preparation time totaled 40 minutes. Reported consumption hydrobiogeochemical and Role within-lake processes of were obtained from the 1999 – 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Nutrient composition analysis was performed using the Food Processor for Windows program (version 8.5.0, ESHA Research, Salem, OR). USDA/ERS “dinner plate of healthy food”: ingredients, weights, or Governance: Faculty Never? Now time, prices, and frequency of consumption.

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