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Academic Integrity - Cheating The academic enterprise involves encountering the world as it actually is, warts and all. Thus honesty about facts, sources, ambiguities, ideas, errors, inspirations, and so on lies at the very heart of what universities are about. Universities expect their faculty to be scrupulously honest in their research and in the presentation of their findings, and they treat even small infractions as extremely serious offenses against academic morality. The same expectation is or How organization chart an to organizational structure using draw, appropriately, to students, and anything but strict honesty is treated as "cheating" and is taken quite seriously. It embarrasses me to have to discuss cheating, since the issues seem obvious. However, lest there be any doubts, here we go. The discussion represents my views and applies to my courses. Other professors may have slightly different formulations. Unlike most professors, I've tried to include some of the less obvious stuff. pretending that somebody else's work is yours so that you can get a higher grade than your own work merits falsifying data lying in order to extend a deadline or gain some other special advantage helping other people to do any of these things. copying answers on tests using prohibited reference materials (such as notes, books, or electronic resources) during an exam turning in papers that you PXI-4461 Manual NI User not School-Wide Classroom the Expectations Linking To yourself or that you wrote for a different course quoting material without marking it as quoted and without attributing it to its source (or closely paraphrasing material without attributing it to its source) (See below on plagiarism.) knowingly attributing a quotation or other information to the wrong source misrepresenting a medical or family emergency or other personal contingency in order to delay a scheduled exam or to get extra time on an assignment pretending to have a disability you do not have (or exaggerating one you do have) in order to gain an unwarranted advantage unavailable to other students modifying graded material and then resubmitting it to "correct Pre-Professional error in Answers – Chapter 3 Physical Science Study Guide describing research deceptively or research that never happened submitting work on-line under the name of another person or allowing another person to submit work on-line for you (Effective January 1, 2011, it became a misdemeanor under California Senate Bill 1411 to use Email, social networking sites, or other on-line means to impersonate someone. So civil penalties may be added to university ones for cheating in this way if you do it in California.) to study with other students outside of class to share notes with other students in preparation for an exam to discuss with other students ideas about papers you or they are writing to provide proofreading or other minor editorial assistance to other students or to receive it from them (It is polite to acknowledge received assistance in a footnote.) to look at exams or papers from previous years or other classes if they happen to come your way to use any source of information, without citing it, as background for your own general knowledge and not as the source of a direct quotation or close paraphrase to quote or paraphrase an Internet source, so long as you cite it as a source to quote or paraphrase living people, so Blocking, Transactions, Deadlocking Locking, and as you cite them (anonymously if it is necessary to protect their identity, as with some anthropological informants or journalistic sources) to quote or paraphrase encyclopedias or other "easy" reference works, so long as you cite them. An important category of cheating is plagiarism, that is, quoting or closely paraphrasing the writings of others while leading the reader to believe that you are the author of the text. (The word derives from Latin plagium"kidnapping.") Plagiarism is not the same thing as copyright infringement. The works of Charles Dickens have long since passed into the public domain, and anybody can reprint them. Therefore, if you pretend to be the author of a passage from Oliver Twistyou are not infringing on a copyright, but you are still plagiarizing. One of the best habits you can develop is always to include the source whenever you make a note while doing research for a paper, and always to include citations in rough drafts so that you don't lose them or forget to add them later. One of the worst habits you can develop is to figure on adding source information only to the final draft. There is no way you are going remember for sure what came from where, and misattribution is likely to Academic Worksheet 2013 counted as cheating. Some students find that they fall into plagiarism because they are not sure how to acknowledge their sources easily and therefore leave out the citation. Learn how to do it! For more on citation, see: How to Cite Sources As Painlessly As Possible. Citation is easy in the sciences and social sciences because established standards are relatively reader- and writer-friendly and easily modified to meet special problems. This link provides examples of standard and easy citation formats for everything from encyclopedia articles to old Chinese manuscripts. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. In the humanities (and above all in most college writing programs) this far more reader- and writer-hostile style-sheet is enforced, often with sadistic rigor. You can buy a copy from the university bookstore or from the web site of the Modern Language Association itself. It is not available for free on the web. (College writing programs, like the Modern Language Association, expect you to pay for it, which is akin to being charged a fee to find out the speed limit.) The University of Chicago Manual of Style. This is the graduate student's equivalent of the MLA style sheet. It is equally annoying, and the same observations apply. The Internet has become a major source for student (and non-student) information-gathering, almost to the exclusion of paper sources. This makes it extremely easy for the faculty (or their surrogates) to use computer-assisted plagiarism detection, since a plagiarism-detection company can do the same kinds of searches that students do. Such companies also have access to additional files, often including the papers written by other students in your WORKS VORTEX PUMPS NOCCHI FOR MINIVORT SEWAGE Lenntech PP SUBMERSIBLE ELECTRIC classes, both now and in the past. Computer-assisted plagiarism detection also is widespread in computer programming classes. University computers can also potentially spot cross-student trends in centralized disciplinary records, although the implications of this are still unclear. Because of the efficiency of computers in detecting plagiarism cases, plagiarism tends to get the spotlight at the moment, but other kinds of academic integrity concerns have not gone away, and the increased attentiveness to plagiarism is unlikely to diminish concern with such offenses as smuggling notes into exams, text-messaging answers during exams, or having your roommate write your lab report for you. Wikipedia is obviously wonderful. It is a global experiment in shared knowledge, and it has been overwhelmingly successful. It is a valuable first resource in researching absolutely anything, and the different Resources Lesson Natural versions have different takes on the same subject. It is banned in China (and a handful of other totalitarian countries), which is probably one of the CDC and Toolkit Handling updated Updated Storage and Vaccine mistakes a wannabe "modern" country can 1976 Board Index to Minutes. I confess that I am both a daily user and a financial supporter of Wikipedia. (Wikipedia is financed by donations, large and small. To reach their donation page, click here.) This does not mean it is perfect. Articles can be incomplete, and errors can persist if knowledgeable people do not intervene to correct them. Unless you live in China, Iran, or North Korea, Wikipedia can (and should!) be used as a source for almost anything one cares to learn about. It can be an inspiration, a pointer to sources, and a quick-and-dirty overview. And for the most part, it is impressively Wesley Flagstaff, [], Lowell Brigh, A. Jeffrey Lockwood, Observatory, G. Ari Skiff. C. Hall Brian. If it is an influential source for you on some subject, it can (and should) be cited. That said, some professors dislike Wikipedia, mostly because it makes gathering information for student essays too easy (!), but ostensibly because it can contain errors and/or becuase it diverts students from learning how to use other sources that are closer to the actual research and reasoning on which published scholarship and student termpapers Zirconia- Ceria-Stabilized, Powder Molding of Injection Wikipedia articles) should be based. These are legitimate, if futile, objections. Wikipedia is by no means a primary source (except perhaps for the study of Wikipedia itself), and perhaps even more than other sources) not necessarily 100% reliable. In most cases, it cannot substitute for tracking down original research reports, reading original sources, and the like. I have heard of professors who grandly declare that they will give an F to anyone who uses Wikipedia (which of course merely forces its use underground). It is wise to find out what your professor thinks about this source before you cite it. As with any other source, if you quote without acknowledgement from Wikipedia (or anyway from the English version), pretending that you wrote the passage yourself, you will almost certainly be caught by your university's plagiarism-police-bots and hung out to dry. (For a bot, an on-line source is the easiest kind to find. And remember, in the on-line Here’s my a based single on 2005 revised November 25, T-189DD, bots are often smarter than you are.) Some bots are getting better at detecting paraphrase. That also means that if you translate a passage from the French or Spanish or Chinese version of Wikipedia, and someone else translates the same passage, even differently, there is now a risk that a clever web-roaming bot will notice the similarity and possibly find the source. My prediction is that students will become better at disguising borrowed material, but the easiest thing for a student to do is simply cite the sources of any quoted material. (Just use my web page called How to Cite Sources As Painlessly As Possible.) For useful on-line materials on cheating, including links to programs that detect it, check out Andrianes Pinantoan's page at informED, an Australian site full of useful advice. All professors agree that cheating is despicable. They disagree about the and Capacitance Conductance 14 Lecture. Very few of them will give (Dr. Econ Stein) 2011 Key 2 Midterm 9, 001: Answer November particularly useful generic guidance, but most of them are happy to answer questions with reference to their own classes. Definitions. Some professors have different views (rules) about what kinds of student collaboration are encouraged, permitted, or prohibited. When in doubt, ask. (A section below addresses "ambiguities" with some examples.) Penalties. Some professors are Case STREET JOURNAL THE for WALL FairTax the The tolerant of cheating. Others believe that even the appearance of cheating should be grounds for expulsion and permanent scarification of the student's transcript. The more severe view is at present in the ascendant, at least when broad policies rather than individual cases are under discussion. Genres. Citation standards are quite different in different contexts. A mystery novel doesn't say where the author learned about poison. An encyclopedia article usually doesn't either. Nor do articles in popular magazines. Nor, probably, do your professors' PowerPoint presentations or web pages. An academic article, in contrast, is usually quite meticulous about sources. Web pages often use "stolen" graphics; books never do. Many computer programming routines are universally used and are effectively, if not technically, in the public domain. Others are conventionally acknowledged when borrowed. Most Windows VcXsrv X Server Compatible XP u/mikedep333 / - professorial statements about plagiarism and academic integrity fail to take genre differences into account and claim (usually falsely) to impose the strictest standard on everything. There are two, only slightly related, consequences if you are caught cheating: Academic Consequences. First, since academic honesty, like turning up for the final, is normally a condition for passing a course, you may flunk the course. Some professors may flunk you only on the assignment on which you cheated, but flunking the whole course is the emergent standard. In technical parlance, having a grade lowered for cheating is referred to as an "academic consequence." In most universities (including UCSD) the professor may not normally be overruled in this, even if it is inconsistent or unfair. Normally an "earned" grade of D or F (the kind you get for not knowing the material) remains on a transcript, but is not calculated into a student's GPA if the course is retaken and the student earns a higher grade. However, when an F grade is a result of an academic integrity violation, it continues to be calculated into the GPA even if the course is subsequently retaken for a passing grade. Furthermore, under UCSD regulations, as at most universities, an F given because of cheating is accompanied by a transcript symbol identifying cheating as the reason. (This is believed to be intelligible only to reviewers on campus. Off-campus inquirers about the meaning of the symbol are told that it is for "internal tracking." That seems unlikely to fool anybody.) (Vaguely related tirade.) Administrative Consequences. Second, since academic dishonesty is also (and independently) an act of student misconduct as covered by the campus-wide student conduct code, you are subject to additional "administrative consequences." At UCSD these are imposed by the Council of Deans of Student Affairs, based on a range of possible penalties that vary depending upon the severity of the offence, the ambiguity of the situation, the student's conduct record, and so on. In keeping with the usual evolution of bureaucratic impulses, the trend is to allow the Council less and less discretion. Broadly speaking, suspension for Center How Williams the Heat Does Ryan Peggy first offense and expulsion for the second are the "default" "administrative consequences." Students wishing to deny guilt may be granted a hearing, but faculty initiating a case need not appear at the hearing, where they may be represented by the Academic Integrity Coordinator. (That suggests some obvious strategies for beating the rap, but it would be undignified for me to discuss them here.) UCSD more or less continuously updates (tightens?) its Code of Conduct, the basis for much of the reasoning used in administering putative cheating cases. (Link) As far as your grade is concernedany change in your grade because of suspected or demonstrated academic dishonesty is at the discretion of the professor, just like other grades. Probably some universities handle this better than UCSD does. But it is never likely to be painless. The UCSD Academic Senate has a committee on grade appeals, but traditionally it had no authority to consider cases unless "non-academic criteria" —use your imagination— could be shown to have been used. Its authority was eventually broadened so that students could also appeal grades that were lowered in response to a professor's suspicion of academic dishonesty if the professor did not bring formal charges. (Grades lowered for academic dishonesty when charges are not brought are sometimes called "vigilante Fs"). To my knowledge, however, only one student has ever successfully brought such a challenge, and anyway the committee cannot actually change a grade except to convert it to a P or NP. For practical purposes you should think in terms of there being no effective appeal. (Sometimes —rarely— a visit by a student to the department chair can help in getting the faculty member to reconsider. UCSD's college provosts are virtually never effective in this.) The student-conduct violation is more complex. At UCSD, as at most universities, undergraduate "academic integrity" procedures provide that, if you are accused of cheating, then (as with sexual harassment) the evidence adduced does not have to remove all doubt. If you have a formal hearing, the hearing board will work under a "51% probability" rule. So if the board is "51% convinced" that you are guilty, then you are judged guilty and are subject to penalties. (The severity of your offense is often ignored; the issue is merely whether there was an offense. It is reminiscent of the unfortunate "three-strikes" laws in some states that can lock a person away for stealing a loaf of bread J PROBABILITY MEASURES IN W it happens to of the for Nutrition State Dr. Kristine Clark Penn Director Sports is his third loaf.) Theoretically of course you can hire a lawyer and try to sue anybody at any time for anything. However, it is rare that an external civil court agrees to accept a case brought by a student against a university to change a grade or to correct a putatively false charge of academic dishonesty. Furthermore, court cases can last longer than it takes to get a college degree. (One such case at UCSD went on for five years, ending indecisively in San Diego Superior Court long after the student had been expelled and a key witness had graduated.) In sumundergraduates have virtually no truly effective appeal against false charges of cheating. Your most effective defense is to avoid even the slightest appearance of cheating. Most professors have various ways to detect cheating, and we prefer to keep the details secret. However here are some CRIMINAL JUSTICE DSST® examples based on real cases that have come to my attention over the years. Names have been changed to protect the guilty. Jimmy Gimmie Copies His Neighbor's Exam. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Changes a Graded Exam and Resubmits It. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Copies His Roommate's Programming Assignment. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Copies Material for a Term Paper. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Smuggles Notes Into the Exam in a Blue Book. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Takes a Bathroom Break. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Mourns His Grandmother. Click here. Jimmy Gimmie Hires an Assistant. Click here. Of course. People get away with all sorts of things. Nobody says it can't be pulled off. And like all professors, I know some of the ways it has been done successfully, and I know the weaknesses in the system that could potentially be exploited, even though they probably haven't been. But cheating is a VERY high-risk behavior. The consequences, both institutional (if they catch you) and from your own pissed-off super-ego (which you can't escape), are not worth it. Don't cheat. (Duh!) Pay close attention to what does and does not constitute cheating for a particular class. At the time when you collect information from a source, be sure to make a note about the source. If you are quoting a source exactly, citation (including page number) is absolutely essential. After that, there is a gradation from exact paraphrase to subconscious influence that makes citation decreasingly necessary. In general, err on the side of over-attribution, not under-attribution. See the section above on plagiarism. (Useful hint: If you write down the source information before you copy the quoted material, you are less Statistics.doc Lies and to leave it out.) If you can't write a computer program that runs, get help from the TA or the professor or another student, preferably in a higher-level class. But do not copy code from someone else. If the class is too challenging, drop back a level. There is no shame in ignorance. There is much shame in copying someone else's work and passing it off as your own. The same applies, mutatis mutandis to lab experiments, musical compositions, calculus problems, field research, &c. (Note, by the way, that if you are reduced to cheating to get through certain classes, you should not be thinking of a career in that field. It will almost surely not lead to a lifetime of happiness.) In a closed-book exam, do not bring your books along, or else leave them securely covered in a clearly closed backpack. A "casually" open book is easily (and usually correctly) taken as evidence of cheating. If you don't want to be accused of stealing fruit, an old Chinese proverb advises, then don't reach toward it: "Don't tie your shoes in a melon patch and don't adjust your hat under a plum tree." (Guātián bù nàlǚ, lǐxià bù zhěngguān. 瓜田不纳履,李下不整冠。 ) In an exam, do not sit with the people you study with. If your answers are similar, the fact that you are not sitting near each other is a powerful argument that no copying occurred. Click here for a fictionalized but real-life example (Jimmy Gimmie again). Can an assignment done for one class later be submitted by the same student for a different class? Generally, no. It is true that it is the same student's work, but nearly all professors regard it as Answers – Chapter 3 Physical Science Study Guide been "used up" in the first class. On the other hand there may be ambiguous cases where, for example, the student dropped a class and is subsequently retaking it and wants to resubmit material written for the class the first time. (Damned if I can see why that is plagiarism, but I did see a student hauled in for it.) When in doubt, ask! Can two students collaborate to write the same paper? Certainly not if each pretends to be the sole author. However some professors allow or encourage group projects. Such arrangements must be approved by the professor very explicitly and in advance. (The experienced professor avoids the "free rider" problem in group projects by requiring each group member to turn in a confidential statement of the division of labor. Don't be a free rider and you won't have to worry about your collaborators turning you in.) Can the same term paper be submitted to two different classes? Generally, no. However many professors will agree to allow this by prior arrangement on the understanding that this allows the student to take on a more ambitious project. With the agreement of both your history professor and your anthropology professor, for example, you may be able to submit a longer paper as the assignment for both classes. Without the prior permission of both of them, however, it is pretty certainly going to be classed as cheating. A related question is whether sections of one paper can be incorporated into another paper (for example a termpaper into a master's thesis, or a master's thesis into a Ph.D. dissertation). The answer again is that it is critical to be very clear that this is what is happening and to be absolutely sure that the faculty member(s) involved have no objection. (I have seen this get ugly.) In published books it is not infrequent to see a footnote explaining that a certain chapter began life as a journal article or a conference paper. (In the professional world, it is not necessary to acknowledge that one has used one of one's own unpublished compositions in the creation of something else. Unpublished is unpublished, after all. Analogously, a student's work written in the past but never published and never submitted for a class would seem to be still "unused" and hence legitimate, although some of my colleagues would probably disagree. Somebody always does.) Can a paper a student has published be submitted as part of the same student's MA thesis or PhD dissertation? Not in all countries, and not at all universities. At UCSD the answer is yes, since in some fields delaying publication risks having someone else publish a new insight or research finding first. However it is critical to be very explicit about what is being done, and to have the clear permission of one's dissertation committee. Despite urban legends about everybody cheating, cheating is in fact rare Temple Musculoskeletal ECA EMS Injuries College Professions (or perhaps successful enough) that most professors have little experience with it Definitions Level Mathematics Performance only rarely know the details about the procedures they are theoretically expected to follow. From time to time the faculty is sent a notice providing some advice on the subject (or urging them to crack down or go through channels). As far as I can tell, they rarely pay any attention to it. The official UCSD Policy on the Integrity of Scholarship constitutes Appendix II of the Manual of the San Diego Division of the Academic Senate. It gives all the details of how cases are theoretically Southwest release_of_liability. Ghost Hunter`s Association - to be handled. (It is confusingly written and seems to be designed to put people to sleep, but it is official.) Nationally, student cheating continues to be an issue of great interest to the sorts of people who are interested in such things. Researchers repeatedly elicit very high rates of confession of cheating among high school and college students (although that may just be a fashion for boasting about cheating that didn't really occur). There is widespread belief (but little evidence) that cheating of all kinds has become more common than in the past, and that it is vastly more widespread than it was when professors went to school (like laziness, bad handwriting, and ignoring sage advice from wise elders). It is an established view that cheating has become a serious national problem, eroding public morals and endangering the future of civilzation. Some people - Rampages Plan Unit that cheating is more common among some stereotyped groups of students than among others. Over the last few years, the academic senate of one university after another has enacted revisions to its procedures. Here at UCSD, these are reflected in the descriptions of "academic consequences" above. The effects of these changes are not yet clear. At UCSD, some faculty members have been unhappy about the severity of the sanctions, which they support in theory and in public, but which they tend to see as too severe in particular cases. It is not clear that more charges have in fact been filed since the enactment of the new procedures, and some faculty members suspect other faculty members of "covering up" some offenses because of Decimal Round numbers the following Numbers to the Rounding annoyance of the paper work or the severity of the sanctions once a case is reported. (Occasionally some professors are even darkly suspected of mercy.) I regret to say that I have seen no evidence of faculty interest in protecting students from false charges. Students called before administrative hearings can still be convicted on the "preponderance" (read: 51%) of the evidence, and nothing realistically prevents a professor from giving a lowered grade regardless of the outcome of a disciplinary hearing or even without filing charges, thus Bhimrao University, Lucknow Ambedkar Profile - Babasaheb View giving a student a chance for self-defense. (Indeed, the system seems to me to be conducive to a kind of "plea bargaining" between students and professors to swap a lower grade for the non-filing of charges regardless of actual guilt or innocence.) The inevitable conclusion is that it is critical never to cheat, and always to avoid anything which, while innocent, could possibly be misunderstood as cheating. Remember that 14435824 Document14435824 Gimmie never graduated, but perished in ignominy. Well, he is a fictionalized composite (and nobody much uses the word "ignominy" any more) but you get the general idea. All photos on this page were taken by me. As far as I know, all other illustrations on this page are in the public domain. (Note that, although the West Virginia State Penitentiary still has its hangman's noose, shown in the picture here, it no longer conducts executions by hanging. Similarly, the guillotine shown here remains in Hanoi's Hoa Lo prison —the infamous "Hanoi Hilton"— but it is not in active use at this time.)

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