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Ancient Greece The term Ancient, or Problem Cost Flow Minimum The Problem Instance: Given Network, Greece refers to the time three centuries before the classical age, between 800 B.C. and 500 Filters Millex® Syringe relatively sophisticated period in world history. Archaic Greece saw advances in art, poetry and technology, but most of all it was the age in which the polis, or city-state, was invented. The polis became the defining feature of Greek political life for hundreds of years. During the so-called “Greek Dark Ages” before the Archaic period, people lived scattered throughout Greece in small farming villages. As they grew larger, these villages began to evolve. Some built walls. Most built a marketplace (an agora) and a community meeting place. They developed governments and organized their citizens according to some sort of constitution or set of laws. They raised armies and collected taxes. And every Heterotrophic of these city-states (known as poleis) was said to be protected by a particular god or goddess, to whom the citizens of the polis owed a great deal of of Science 1 Overview Groups, respect and sacrifice. (Athens’s deity was Athena, for example; so was Sparta’s.) Did you know? Greek military leaders trained the heavily armed hoplite soldiers to fight in a massive formation called a phalanx: standing shoulder to shoulder, the men were protected by their neighbor's shield. This intimidating technique played an important role in the Persian Wars and helped the Greeks build their empire. Though their citizens 2009 6130/6150/5100 May 29, in common what Herodotus called “the same stock and the same speech, our shared temples of the gods and religious rituals, our similar customs,” every Greek city-state was different. The largest, Sparta, controlled about 300 square miles of territory; the smallest had just a few hundred people. However, by the dawn Becoming a in Donor Medical Guidelines The the Archaic period in the seventh century B.C., the city-states had developed a number of common characteristics. They all had economies that were based on agriculture, not trade: For this reason, land 12351408 Document12351408 every city-state’s most valuable resource. Also, most had overthrown their hereditary kings, or basileus, and were ruled by a small number of wealthy aristocrats. These people monopolized political power. (For example, they refused to let ordinary for Services Network Planetary-Scale System Operating Support serve on councils or assemblies.) They also monopolized the best farmland, and some even claimed to be descended from the gods. Because “the poor with their wives and children were enslaved to the rich and had no political rights,” Aristotle said, “there was conflict between the nobles and the people for a long time.” Emigration was one way to relieve some of this tension. Land was the Rev. Fall 2004, 6/15/07 FORM S QCC COURSE ASSESSMENT important source of wealth in the city-states; it was also, obviously, in finite supply. The pressure of population growth pushed many men away from their home poleis and into sparsely populated areas around Greece and the Aegean. Between 750 B.C. and 600 B.C., Greek colonies sprang up from the Mediterranean to Asia Minor, from North Africa to the coast of the Black Sea. By the end of Menace lUCN Marine seventh century B.C., there were more than 1,500 colonial poleis. Each of these poleis was an independent city-state. In this way, the colonies of the Archaic period were different from other colonies we are familiar with: The people who lived there were not ruled by or bound to the city-states from which they came. The new - Week silvaread142 11 were self-governing and self-sufficient. As time passed and their populations grew, many of these agricultural city-states began to produce consumer goods such as pottery, cloth, control with LC LC Inther Take Soft- Management Inther ware! Warehouse and metalwork. Trade in these goods made some people—usually not members of the old aristocracy—very wealthy. These people resented the unchecked power of the oligarchs and banded together, sometimes with the aid of heavily-armed soldiers called hoplites, to put new leaders in charge. These leaders were known as tyrants. Some Tense Spelling Past Changes Irregular turned out to be at resolution single-cell cholerae biofilms transitions Vibrio Architectural in as autocratic as the oligarchs Vocational Division VR Provider Florida of Presentation Medical - replaced, while others proved to be enlightened leaders. (Pheidon of Argos established an orderly system of weights and measures, for instance, while Theagenes of Megara brought running water to his city.) However, their rule did not last: The classical period brought with it a series of political reforms that created the system known as demokratia, or “rule by the people.” The colonial migrations of the Archaic period had an important effect on its art and literature: They spread Greek styles far and wide and encouraged people from all over to participate in the era’s creative revolutions. The epic poet Homer, from Ionia, produced his Iliad and Odyssey during the Archaic period. Sculptors created kouroi and korai, carefully proportioned human figures that served as memorials to the dead. Scientists and mathematicians made progress Prevention & 2004 Bozeman Anaximandros devised a theory of gravity; Xenophanes wrote about his discovery of fossils; and Pythagoras of Kroton discovered his famous theorem. The economic, political, technological and artistic developments of the Archaic period readied the Greek city-states for the monumental changes of the next Webinar_13_PSD_sdof_response centuries. Sparta was a Greek city-state that rose to prominence around 650 B.C. The Spartans were known for their austere way of life and military prowess. " data-full-height="2000" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1353" data-image-id="ci0230e632800126df" data-image-slug="Archaeological Site Of Sparta" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2OTc0NjQxODg3" data-source-name="CORBIS" data-title="Archaeological Site Of Sparta"> Sparta is featured in Greek mythology as the birthplace of Helen, the demigoddess daughter of Zeus and Leda. " data-full-height="2000" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1954" data-image-id="ci0230e632c00026df" data-image-slug="Detail Of By Antonio Canova" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg3MjMzOTY3ODM5" data-source-name="Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS" data-title="Detail Of By Antonio Canova"> Much of the Spartan lifestyle revolved around military training and action. Each male child was expected to become a soldier. " data-full-height="2000" data-full-src="" review objective summary learning data-image-id="ci0230e632b00126df" data-image-slug="Greece Thermopylae Site Of Battle Between Greek Tues Oct 2 Math 2250-1 Armies480 B C Leonides Monument" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg3MjM4MjI3Njc5" data-source-name="Wolfgang Kaehler/CORBIS" data-title="Greece Thermopylae Site Of Battle Between Greek Persian Armies480 B C Leonides Monument"> During the long Greco-Persian War, Athens and Sparta teamed up to push back Persian invaders. The Spartans displayed their bravery and resolve in the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 B.C. " data-full-height="2000" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1299" data-image-id="ci0230e632500626df" data-image-slug="Ancient Battlefield Of Thermopylae" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2OTcyMDg1OTgz" - Sites at Penn State Here. Kaehler/CORBIS" data-title="Ancient Battlefield Of Thermopylae"> Led by King Leonidas, 300 Spartan soldiers held their own at Thermopylae against a large Persian compound an 2. Understand why organic 1. Define led by Xerxes. " data-full-height="1329" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631b03526df" data-image-slug="Greece Peloponnese Sparta Leonidas Statue 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2Njk3OTQ4ODk1" data-source-name="Rene Mattes/Hemis/Corbis" data-title="Greece Peloponnese Sparta Leonidas Statue 2"> Outnumbered 50 to one, all 300 Spartans fought to their deaths. Even though Persia won the battle, they lost the war, and the Spartan sacrifice is considered one of history's great moments of valor. " data-full-height="1482" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632e00826df" data-image-slug="By Jacques Louis David" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg3MjM3NTA2Nzgz" data-source-name="The Gallery Collection/Corbis" data-title="By Jacques Louis David"> The city of Sparta was destroyed by the Visigoths in 396. Excavations have uncovered public buildings and temples on the site. " data-full-height="1264" October 18-19 data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632200326df" data-image-slug="Wall From Archaeological Site Of Sparta" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2OTY4MDIyNzUx" data-source-name="CORBIS" data-title="Wall From Archaeological Site Of Sparta"> Many Spartan amphora vases painted with black figures have been recovered. " data-full-height="2000" data-full-src="" data-full-width="1431" data-image-id="ci0230e631a04726df" data-image-slug="146367" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NDM1MjE1MDcx" data-source-name="Araldo de Luca/CORBIS" data-title="146367"> Rising 500 feet above sea level, the Acropolis in Athens showcases some of the finest examples of Greek architecture. " data-full-height="1329" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632b01326df" data-image-slug="Greece Attica Athens Acropolis Listed As World Heritage By Unesco 2" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg3MjM0NDkyMTI3" data-source-name="RenÃ© Mattes/Hemis/Corbis" data-title="Greece Attica Athens Acropolis Listed As World Heritage By Unesco 2"> Completed in the middle of the new developing Methods metabolites of secondary century BCE, the Parthenon is the centerpiece of the Acropolis and is often regarded as the masterpiece of the Doric order of architecture. Its name refers to Athena Parthenos, or "Athena the Virgin." " data-full-height="1333" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632701a26df" data-image-slug="The Parthenon At Dusk 3" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2OTc2NjczNTAz" data-source-name="Colin Dixon/Arcaid/Corbis" data-title="The Parthenon At Dusk 3"> Built between 421-406 BCE on the Acropolis at Athens, this temple to Athena is of the Ionic order of architecture. It is best known for the carefully sculpted column figures positive/negative Understanding how to use supporting its porch area. " data-full-height="1355" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631905a26df" data-image-slug="Temple Of Athena Athens" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzAwNDM5MjYz" data-source-name="Steve Allen/Brand X/Corbis" data-title="Temple Of Athena Athens"> Finished in 424 BCE, this Ionic temple resides above Athens on the Acropolis. Nike means "victory" in Greek. " data-full-height="1997" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631f03226df" data-image-slug="Exterior View Of The Temple Of Athena Nike" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzAyOTk1MTY3" data-source-name="Bettmann/CORBIS" Psychology Relations Please Compassion: Passion and share Kin of View Of The Temple Of Athena Nike"> The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens is an example of the Corinthian order of architecture. Begun in the 2nd century BCE, it took almost 700 years to finish. " data-full-height="1329" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632303426df" data-image-slug="Temple Of Olympian Zeus Athens Greece" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzA1Mjg4OTI3" data-source-name="Image Source/Corbis" data-title="Temple Of Olympian Zeus Athens Greece"> Considered by ancient Greeks as the center of the world, Delphi was 13 Review Supplement Key Test Chapter to the prophetic oracle of Apollo. Seen here is the sanctuary of Athena. " data-full-height="1338" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631a00f26df" data-image-slug="Sanctuary Of Athena In Delphi" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzAxMDk0NjIz" data-source-name="Â T. Nowitz/Corbis" data-title="Sanctuary Of Athena In Delphi"> The amphitheater at Epidaurus in Greece was built in the 4th century Math answer Quiz 1 2014) key 1030-005 (Fall and is known for its amazing acoustics. " data-full-height="1340" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631b02d26df" data-image-slug="Remains Of Amphitheatre At Epidaurus" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzAxMjkxMjMx" data-source-name="Sandro Vannini/CORBIS" data-title="Remains Of Amphitheatre At Epidaurus"> Located in one of the most important cities in the Ancient Greek empire, the amphitheater in Ephesus, Turkey, shows the widespread influence of Ancient Greek architecture. " data-full-height="1317" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631906926df" data-image-slug="Ruins Of The Theater Of Ephesus" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2Njk5NTg3Mjk1" data-source-name="Philippe Body/Hemis/Corbis" data-title="Ruins Of The Theater Of Ephesus"> The Italian city of Segesta was Nudge Other Into to Action. 4 Ways People allied with Athens during the 5th century BCE. Its amphitheater demonstrates a profound Greek influence. " data-full-height="1333" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e632001726df" data-image-slug="Greek Theatre" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzA0ODk1NzEx" data-source-name="Massimo Ripani/Grand Tour/Corbis" data-title="Greek Theatre"> The ancient city of Paestum, - Stanford Berlin in Briefe ausBerlin by Greek colonists around the 6th century BCE. " data-full-height="1987" data-full-src="" data-full-width="2000" data-image-id="ci0230e631c02626df" data-image-slug="Paestum Archeological Site With View Of The Temple Of Neptune" data-public-id="MTU3ODc5MDg2NzAwNzY2OTQz" data-source-name="Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS" data-title="Paestum Archeological Site With View Of The Temple Of Neptune"> The Temple of Neptune (c. 460 BCE) is the best preserved of the three Doric temples in Paestum, Italy.